More than just a bump: Cam-type femoroacetabular impingement and the evolution of the femoral neck
Hip Int 2011; 21(1): 1 - 8
Article Type: REVIEW
Vincent Y. Ng, Thomas J. Ellis
Recent orthopaedic literature has implicated femoroacetabular impingement, the pathologic abutment of structural aberrancies in the proximal femur and acetabular rim, as an important cause of groin pain in young individuals and a potential factor in early idiopathic osteoarthritis. The etiology and risk factors for developing cam-type morphology are still unknown. The osseous anatomy of the proximal femur in humans is the culmination of nearly 400 million years of evolution. Coxa recta and coxa rotunda are the two predominant morphologies in modern animals. While the latter, characterized by a straight head-neck junction, is often present in cursorial creatures, the former, distinguished by high offset at this junction, is exemplified in most humans. Based on the ontology and phylogeny of the proximal femur, coxa rotunda probably developed from a more primitive coxa recta. We believe that cam-type morphology is neither a redevelopment of coxa recta nor a malformation such as slipped capital epiphysis. The aspherical osteocartilaginous bump is associated with an extended physis and has been noted to appear during mid-adolescence. While this protuberance may contribute to future pathology, the authors feel that increased loading of the hip, not impingement activities, during late childhood and early adolescence predispose patients to develop this morphology.
- • Accepted on 27/07/2010
- • Available online on 27/01/2011
- • Published in print on 15/02/2011